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|Diamond fact file|
|Crystal Structure: isometric|
Chemical Composition: Carbon
Hardness: 10 MOHS
|Refractive Index: 2.417|
Colors: colorless, yellow, black, red, green, purple, blue, pink
Diamond, the April birthstone, needs no explanation. The hardest mineral found on Earth, the diamond is also one of the most treasured of gems.
It is made of pure carbon formed under very high pressure underground. Although diamond is the most popular and discussed gemstone, it has been in use for a shorter time than any of the other gems that are commonly used in modern times. The reason for this is because lapidaries did not learn to fashion diamond until about the 15th Century when it was discovered that one diamond would abrade another.
Physical and Chemical Properties
Diamond is composed of the element Carbon The hardness of diamond is 10 on the Mohs Scale—there is nothing harder. The figure 10 could be said represent the “average” hardness of a diamond. Diamond has a fairly high refractive index: 2.417. The high refractive index is what causes the diamond to have its adamantine luster. Diamond has a very high dispersion (0.044). The dispersion is what causes a faceted diamond to show many colors when it is moved about in the light.
The most common diamonds are colorless, but this april birthstone also can be yellow or even a dusty black. Other colors include red, green, purple, blue, and pink. They are valued according to four qualities known as the four C’s: color, cut, clarity, and carat.
Healing Properties and Interesting Information
Diamond creates goodness and removes evil and fearful thoughts in native. It improves financial conditions and blesses the native with comforts and peace of mind. Diamond also enhances sexual power. Also helpful in diabetes, diseases of urine, of private parts, syphilis, skin and uterine diseases.
India is probably the oldest known source of diamonds but South Africa became the major supplier of this april birthstone by the late 19th Century. Historic sources of diamond have also been in Brazil. There have been important diamond finds in California, Colorado, Russia, Australia and Canada. Diamonds can be found throughout the world, but abundant mines are located in South Africa, Australia, India, Russia, and Brazil.
Diamonds have been the pride of empires throughout time, and several are legendary, such as the Hope Diamond at the Smithsonian Institution and Kohinoor Diamond of the Moghuls of India, now a part of the Crown Jewels Collection. Ancient Hindu followers believed diamonds were created by thunderbolts striking the ground. Diamonds have been called the “gems of the sun” in reference to their brilliance. When worn, the stones supposedly brought the bearer strength and courage. In America, diamonds are traditionally used in engagement and wedding rings. This tradition may have started from the superstition that a given diamond transfers good luck and true love to the recipient.
Buying and Caring tips
Tips for Buying Diamond Jewelry
The price of a diamond depends upon the “four Cs” of diamonds – cut, clarity, color and carat weight. The brilliance of a diamond depends heavily on its cut. The visibility, number and size of the inclusions or flaws determine what is called the clarity of a diamond. Diamonds that are clear create more brilliance, and thus are more highly prized, and priced. Colorless diamonds are the most desirable since they allow the most refraction of light (sparkle). Off white diamonds absorb light, inhibiting brilliance. A carat is the unit of weight by which a diamond is measured. Because large diamonds are found less commonly than small diamonds, the price of a diamond rises exponentially to its size.
Tips to take care of Diamond Jewelry
Mechanical cleaners are safe, unless a stone has fractures or is fracture-filled. If that is the case, avoid heat and chemicals.Ammonia-based cleaners or mild solvents are fine. If using warm soapy water, rinse well and pat dry to avoid residue. Vodka is said to produce sparkling results.